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Non-receptor tyrosine kinase


Dec 15, 2021

A non-receptor tyrosine kinase (nRTK) is cytosolic enzyme that is responsible for catalysing the transfer of a phosphate group from a nucleoside triphosphate donor, such as ATP, to tyrosine residues in proteins. Non-receptor tyrosine kinases are a subgroup of protein family tyrosine kinases, enzymes that can transfer the phosphate group from ATP to a tyrosine residue of a protein (phosphorylation). These enzymes regulate many cellular functions by switching on or switching off other enzymes in a cell.

Class of kinase enzymes
This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. (October 2018)
Non-receptor tyrosine kinase
EC no.
IntEnz IntEnz view
ExPASy NiceZyme view
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDBPDBePDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / QuickGO
PMC articles
PubMed articles
NCBI proteins

Unlike the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the second subgroup of tyrosine kinases, the non-receptor tyrosine kinases are cytosolic enzymes. Thirty-two non-receptor tyrosine kinases have been identified in human cells (EC Non-receptor tyrosine kinases regulate cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration and apoptosis, and they are critical components in the regulation of the immune system.

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The main function of nRTKs is their involvement in signal transduction in activated T- and B-cells in the immune system.[1] Signaling by many receptors is dependent on nRTKs including T-cell receptors (TCR), B-cell receptors (BCR), IL-2 receptors (IL-2R), Ig receptors, erythropoietin (EpoR) and prolactin receptors. CD4 and CD8 receptors on T lymphocytes require for their signaling the Src family member Lck. When antigen binds to T-cell receptor, Lck becomes autophosphorylated and phosphorylates the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor, subsequently another nRTK, Zap70, binds to this T-cell receptor and then participates in downstream signaling events that mediate transcriptional activation of cytokine genes. Another Src family member Lyn is involved in signaling mediated by B-cell receptor. Lyn is activated by stimulation of B-cell receptor, which leads to the recruitment and phosphorylation of Zap70-related nRTK, Syk. Another nRTK, Btk, is also involved in signaling mediated by the B-cell receptor. Mutations in the Btk gene are responsible for X-linked agammaglobulinemia,[2][3] a disease characterized by the lack of mature B-cells.

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