Located in the northwestern part of the county, it borders the following townships:
- Saybrook Township – north
- Plymouth Township – northeast corner
- Jefferson Township – east
- Lenox Township – southeast corner
- Morgan Township – south
- Trumbull Township – southwest corner
- Harpersfield Township – west
- Geneva Township – northwest corner
It is the only Austinburg Township statewide.
The township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is also an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, which is held in November of the year before the presidential election. Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees.